Toast the fennel seed over low heat, approximately 1 minute. Once toasted, crush the fennel seed in a pestle. In a small bowl, combine all ingredients of the spice mixture and set aside.
Place the prepared carrots and fennel on a large sheet pan (or roasting pan). Spread to an even layer and drizzle with 2 tbsp olive oil. Sprinkle with 2 tsp of spice mixture and place in oven to roast.
Rub the remaining spice mixture on the pork tenderloin. Heat 2 tbsp olive oil over medium heat and sear tenderloin on all sides until golden brown, about 2 minutes per side.
Once fully seared, add the tenderloin to the sheet pan with the vegetables and roast until the meat registers 145°F and the vegetables have a golden-brown crust.
While the meat is roasting, prepare the sauce. Heat the skillet used to brown the meat to medium-low heat. Add the vinegar and scrape up the browned bits on the bottom of the pan, 1 minute. Add the mustard and jam and stir until the sauce bubbles throughout, 2-3 minutes. Remove from heat and set aside. Serve with the pork and vegetables.